Justice? or Vengeance?

I enjoy reading Icelandic sagas and the really good part of going to Iceland in 2016 was going to Thingvelir. It’s the actual Rift Valley where Europe and North America split. Geologically, I can’t think of anything cooler, but besides that it’s the place where, for two weeks in summer, all the Icelandic vikings met once a year to hold trials and make laws. In Njal’s Saga I read about this for the first time. The Vikings set up booths and adjudicated things and sold things and socialized. Imagine, having, essentially, two weeks a year to socialize but that was more or less true. Their “booths” were dug part way into the ground, built up with rocks and completed with skins and whatever else they had. Stuff was sold and traded, but most wonderful was the Althing, the meeting of their parliament and their court.

Re-enactment at Thingvellir of a “booth”

The basic code was that the parties in a law suit would abide by the decision, but judging (ha ha) from the sagas, that isn’t what always happened. The line between justice and revenge can be almost nonexistent. When an adjudication didn’t satisfy the complainants, chances were good that someone’s house would be burned down, his wife or daughter stolen, a spear thrust through his chest. Many were the methods for exactly justice in the wilds of medieval Iceland. Still, I think the Althing worked often enough that it didn’t stop trying. It is still in existence and met at Thingvellir until the 18th century.

This morning I got this from my Senator:

On January 6, 2021, Congress convened to fulfill its constitutional duty to certify the Electoral College results of the 2020 election. A day meant to affirm American democracy instead turned into one of the darkest in our history. President Trump’s incitement ended in a violent breach of the United States Capitol by his supporters. It was an assault on America’s commitment to democracy, the rule of law, and the peaceful transition of power.

This attack on our Constitution cannot go unanswered. We must reject lawlessness and reassert the rule of law. We must repudiate authoritarianism and reclaim democracy. Those who organized and led the assault, those who followed them, and those who incited them – none should be beyond the reach of justice.

Last year, I voted to remove President Trump from office for his crimes against our republic. Since then, his unconstitutional wrongdoing has only grown worse…I will support any effort to impeach the president and uphold the rule of law – including steps beyond January 20, 2021, if required.

Michael Bennett, Senator for Colorado

It’s interesting that almost ALL the sagas (those I’ve read, anyway) deal with this subject. Wrongs are done, or perceived, and taken to the Althing for adjudication by a democratically chosen judge. The case is presented, evidence and testimonies given, and a verdict is rendered. If everything is satisfactory to both parties, fines are paid and life goes on. But, in that case, there’s no saga. It’s only when the parties return home without feeling satisfied that a saga emerges. The plaintiffs expect the worst and the defendants (or vice versa depending on the story) vow to exact REAL justice. The exacting of that “real justice” is the basis for the stories. I cannot right now think of a single story in which the Althing did not judge correctly, and the “justice” exacted post-Althing was always vengeance, often motivated by greed, lust, envy or a muddled combination of the three.

Violence in the Icelandic Sagas is wild, colorful, creative. Their culture was partly a raiding culture which meant there were plenty of opportunities for people to be grieved. The descriptions are amazing — grieved parties waiting for winter when the bay would be frozen and they can ride across it to their enemy’s farm and set it on fire. Having been in Iceland, staying in a house on one bay when everything else was on another bay, I get that. By car it was a couple hours drive. By horse? That would be a complicated journey of at least few days giving the soon-to-be-injured party plenty of opportunity to evade attack or stage an attack themselves. And, as it happened, there was more cover in Iceland in winter than in summer.

The problem with civilization is that people are not peaceful by nature. Anger is part of who we are and it’s kind of addictive. I think we humans look around for justifications to feed that emotion and keep it alive. A law and order society — a real one — will never satisfy that part of humanity. I think there have always been these two competing strands in human nature; one seeking a peaceful life of rule and cooperation and another ready to kill for what it wants or to satisfy a burning grievance.


“I’m a Writer, Not a Reader”

The phrase didn’t originate with me. It’s Umberto Eco in a book I haven’t read (and won’t). Reviewed in The Guardian.

“When people ask whether I’ve read this or that book, I’ve found that a safe answer is, ‘You know, I don’t read, I write.’ That shuts them up.” 

I am in a place where I have to read in order to write. I have to read a lot and some of it is good, interesting, wonderful. I like the subject matter. Reading all this will open a door to a shadow world I’ve long wondered about. 

Once I was a reader. I read voraciously (as do a lot of people with blogs here on WordPress). I think that changed because of two things. One, reading became research. A historical novel is a long research paper, hopefully more interesting, but without the research a story is just a bunch of modern people in costumes. That’s not what I want to write.

For example, I wrote the first draft of Martin of Gfenn without knowing that there was no paper in Northern Europe during his lifetime (13th century). Martin is a fresco painter, and I had him drawing cartoons on sheets of paper. That would have been like the wristwatch on the galley slave in Ben Hur or whatever. 

But research is a directed search for answers; it’s not sitting in a comfy chair enjoying a story unfolding. It’s a scavenger hunt through a labyrinth.

The other factor is reading hundreds, nay, thousands, nay, tens of thousands of student papers and having to grade them. That can sure take the bloom off the rose, so to speak. I ultimately devised rubrics for every single project so that I was not obliged to mark the same thing over and over and over again. Students like these rubrics because they made the whole thing of writing an essay less like lacing a boot inside a black bag in a dark room. 

Over the past decade there have been a few writers whose brilliance has been able to lure me from my “I hate reading” cave. The most notable is Jane Gardam. Her stories are good and her writing is brilliant, clean, clear humorous and fun to read, demonstrating knowledge of and sympathy for people. 

I have also enjoyed several Icelandic Sagas and have one on my table for the very cold winter days that will come. They, too, are fun to read, clean writing, lots of action, some challenging moral questions, great descriptions of scenery and believable characters. My favorite remains Njal’s Saga. It was a huge thrill to me to be in Iceland and see the very place where Njal’s problems started, the remains of the Althing at Thingvellir, all this with an understanding of how law had failed Njal. It was great, even though I was in a lot of pain. Njal’s story was the great pull that took me to Iceland. 

I think that’s what good stories do — transport you to a different world. OK, late spring in Iceland was a saga of its own, but I was able to reach a profound understanding of why there were so many sagas written. 


Quiet Morning in Monte Vista, Colorado

Back home again and the lilacs are in full force. ❤  Like most trips, this one was long and strange. The flight was normal for a transatlantic flight; the big difference was that it was half as long as most I have experienced, but none the less grueling. Still, I think of the people about whom I’m writing with their three+ month voyages, death, disease and disaster and I think I don’t have any room to complain.

The dogs are fine. Mindy stayed with Lois’ husband and their three dogs. Dusty and Bear stayed in a nice kennel. Bear was definitely relieved when I picked her up from the kennel and Dusty was ecstatic and told me all his stories from the two weeks. Bear and Dusty are tired still this morning, but I know that by tomorrow they — and I — will be “normal” (for us!) again.

Summer arrived in the San Luis Valley while I was gone — not my favorite season since I hate yard work (I do like gardening) and I vastly prefer cold weather, but we’ll get used to it and be sorry to see it leave when fall comes.

Humans are strange that way.

Iceland was very good for me as a writer and artist. The weather was abysmal while we were in the Snaefellsjokul National Park — a park that circles a huge, sleeping volcano covered with a glacier. Because of the storm that settled on the peninsula while we were there, we didn’t see any of this until we were in the air flying away from Iceland on the one clear day we had during our adventure. It was magnificent. I loved both countries I visited and was sorry to leave both of them, Switzerland because it feels like home to me and Iceland because it remains a provocative mystery, even more tantalizing because of what I did see.


I love Icelandic sagas, so, for me, the fact that Icelanders seem to love them too and will talk about them was great. While they were digging a foundation for a building in downtown Reykjavik some years ago, they happened on the ruins of a Viking turf long house and so, instead of building THAT building, they built the most amazing museum to house the ruins. There I heard a docent — a young woman — telling another tourist about a funny saga and I wanted to know more. When, later, I asked her, she was so happy to talk about it and she and her assistant found a paper about this saga and printed it out for me. I cannot imagine such a conversation or experience here, but, then, I know that Americans generally don’t go around reading Icelandic sagas for fun. I find this strange because they are way more interesting that Game of Thrones.

Everywhere we went, in fact, the sagas were part of the landscape and I think it’s beautiful that 1) the sagas were written down, 2) they are still valued and loved. They are truly the story of Iceland’s settlement and make, for Iceland, a historical record that does not hide or gloss over or sugarcoat or pervert anything.


Icelandic Sagas

A long time ago when I was first researching and writing Martin of Gfenn, I was wandering around Hillcrest in San Diego with my friend, Denis Joseph Francis Callahan (RIP). He bought me a book and made a wisecrack, “If you’re so interested in medieval shit you’d better read this.”

It was Njal’s Saga.

I did. I loved it. It’s Beowulf on steroids. I didn’t know much about Icelandic sagas then but then last year I took an online class which was pretty tedious and academic about “Space in the Icelandic Saga.” But I learned about more sagas and something about Norse mythology and I finished the class “with distinction” and that was cool.

In two weeks, I will be in Iceland. What drew me to Iceland in the first place wasn’t the sagas but the horses. I saw them in a movie Beowulf and Grendl which was filmed in Iceland. I was amazed at the little horses that hung around like buses or cars waiting for Vikings to ride them. I began researching the little horses and learned where they were.


Then I began to put the country together with Njal’s Saga and that added a whole dimension of interest. Now I’m reading Egil’s Saga which is about Egil (duh) but also about Norwegian history, telling of the tyrannical king, Harald, who drove many good people out of Norway including Egil’s father, Skallagrim. And, as it happens (quite accidentally!) I’ll be staying not far from Skallagrim’s original homestead.

I did a little research into saga sites, too, and found one I would love to go visit but it doesn’t seem practicable for this trip. One of the responses I got, though, asked me if I were a teacher or something that I was interested in the sagas.

I thought about that and felt sad. The sagas are popular literature — folklore that was written down in the 13th century by a guy with the most awesome name: Snorri Sturllsson. But now, because of their age and obscurity have been relegated to the grey/brown realm of “literature” much like Beowulf and the Odyssey. Really and truly, though, these are adventure stories that are nine million times more accessible and fun to read than anything by Richard Brautigan, Dan Brown, Danielle Steel and I dunno, the Game of Thrones guy. They are wonderful.

Egil is a big, violent, dark, bald guy; he’s a superlative viking. He fought for the English King, Athelstan against the Scottish King Olaf (Olaf?). Through this I see a lot more clearly how the British and Viking cultures became inextricably connected during the years of viking raids. I’ve also learned that viking raids were the normal activity of the “hot bloods”  — restless young men trying to make a fortune. Most of them settled down on a farm when their viking years were over. I’ve learned about going “berserk” as a viking quality.

Egil was a poet and the saga is filled with his spontaneous verses. The book is fun to read and an object lesson on basic human nature (jealous, vengeful, passionate, hard-working, longing for home).

Let’s follow a friendlier
Feeder of wolves:
Let’s beat the oar-blades
Of our shield-adorned boat
That sword-bender won’t shun
Me, seeking his company:
Let’s sling our shields
Aboard, let’s make sail.


Icelandic Sagas — Njal’s Saga

I’m reading an Icelandic saga, Njal’s Saga, at the moment. I love it. From it I’ve seen the writing style that best appeals to me. There’s no description of scenery. Characters are described so we know what they look like and something about their basic personalities. When the saga will not follow the adventures of a character any more, the saga says, “And Hrothjoxvellids is now out of this saga.” There were times with the Schneebeli Brothers Go to Church I wanted to do just that. “And Katarina is now out of this novel.” But, we don’t do that any more.

There are hundreds of characters with strange unpronounceable names, like Thojostolf. In the saga, as in Garrison Keillors’ “Powdermilk Biscuit Flour Hour,” the men are all good looking and brave and the women are, I forgot. In fact, women in the saga are pretty devious and complicated so far. I haven’t met a good one yet, but some of the men are pretty nasty, too.

The saga doesn’t tell anyone what to feel. Death comes like a drink of water and the main problem it causes is that someone has to pay compensation. “He gave Thjolswulfson 200 pieces of silver and Thjolswulfson was happy.” This is for the death of Tjolswulfson’s son (names are being invented at this moment because it’s just fun to make up fake Icelandic names). No one is wrangling in existential angst over anything. The big problems are flour, dried fish and money.

There are witches — so far the one witch has been a man and his powers are very cool. He’s able to protect a runaway axe murderer by using fog and darkness to bewilder the axe murderer’s pursuers, causing them to lose their weapons and horses.

The fact that I like this style of writing isn’t going to help me sell novels because, you know what? I write this way. I’m actually stunned. Everything the modern reader would complain about in the sagas was imputed to my prose in my erstwhile workshop. “Too many characters with unfamiliar names.” “Not enough description. I need to see where they are and what it looks like.” “Too much dialogue.”

My philosophy as a novelist (I do have one) is that the people in my stories are familiar with their world. I should write about it from their perspective; it’s a place they know — are they going to belabor that for the benefit of someone else? Since they’re not, why would I? I don’t. To me it interferes with the sense of immediacy I try to create. This is probably one reason I’m the bestselling writer I am today. 🙂

The sagas have no plot. They are told in episodes. I LOVE that. I first met that in college, reading Homer and Medieval verse romances. I didn’t like it then. I wanted the smoothness of Thomas Hardy’s atmospheric novels in which I could walk the roads of Sussex with Tess or Jude. I met it again in the 1980s reading The Water Margin, a 14th century Chinese novel about a group of outlaws who overthrow a corrupt emperor, and I discovered that the episodic structure kept me interested, intrigued. By then I knew that most of the time I — and most other people — do not walk through the world with the intense consciousness of the world that modern fiction requires and I know that my life has taken place in, is remembered in, episodes.

The sagas seem, to me, to be completely realistic. Here’s the description of a marriage, “They got along well all summer.” There — three months of a relationship in six words. Isn’t that how we all remember things like that in our own lives? “In fall they began having problems again and Hallgerd asked to go back to her father during the Althing.”

None of this:

“As time passed, Hallgerd felt increasingly alienated from Hrut. Everything he did, even the most charming of his mannerisms, started to get on her nerves. If he brought her tea, it was always the wrong kind or it was cold. If he reached for her in the night, her skin broke out in a sweat and goosebumps covered her arms.” OK, I can see that this kind of description has certain captivating elements, but so what? What HAPPENS? OH! She asks to go back to her father during the Althing. Not, “That night she made Hrut his favorite dinner of dried cod, milk gravy and turnips. She even brought out some dried berries from summer, berries that reminded her of that glorious day above the cove when they had found the wild bushes covered with fruit. They’d picked berries all afternoon and later lay together on the heath, their bodies spent from the wild love-making inspired by the warmth of the day and the splendid view of the fjord. At dinner, her heart sore with regret and longing for home, she begged Hrut to allow her to visit her father during the Althing.”


The sagas focus on action and when someone goes after someone else with an axe, things get descriptive. “He cut through Glum’s shoulder bone and blood poured into Glum’s lungs. Still, before he died, Glum was able, with his short sword, to loosen Thojostolf’s hold on his axe and stab him through the belly. Thojostolf died. And that was the end of Thojostolf.” We’re glad. We’re sorry about Glum, but glad that Thojostolf is dead because he was a really bad man and stupid. Of course, now Hallgerd’s father will have to pay restitution to Glum’s family for the loss of their son, but it’ll only be a few hundred yards of cloth…